发布时间： 2018-07-17 11:40:57 浏览： 2105
You may have heard that Coca-Cola once contained an ingredient capable of sparking particular devotion in consumers: cocaine. The "Coca" in the name referred to the extracts of coca leaf that the drink's originator, chemist John Pemberton, mixed with his sugary syrup. At the time, coca leaf extract mixed with wine was a common tonic, and Pemberton's sweet brew was a way to get around local laws prohibiting the sale of alcohol. But the other half of the name presents another ingredient, less infamous, perhaps, but also strangely potent: the kola nut.
In West Africa, people have long chewed kola nuts as stimulants, because they contain caffeine that also occurs naturally in tea, coffee, and chocolate. They also have heart stimulants.
Historian Paul Lovejoy relates that the cultivation of kola nuts in West Africa is hundreds of years old. The leafy, spreading trees were planted on graves and as part of traditional rituals. Even though the nuts, which need to stay moist, can be somewhat delicate to transport, traders carried them hundreds of miles throughout the forests and grasslands.
Europeans did not know of them until the 1500s, when Portuguese ships arrived on the coast of what is now Sierra Leone. And while the Portuguese took part in the trade, ferrying nuts down the coast along with other goods, by 1620, when English explorer Richard Jobson made his way up the Gambia, the nuts were still peculiar to his eyes.
By the late 19th century, kola nuts were being shipped by the tonne to Europe and the US. Many made their way into medicines, intended as a kind of energy boost. One such popular medicinal drink was Vin Mariani, a French product consisting of coca extract mixed with red wine. It was created by a French chemist, Angelo Mariani, in 1863. So when Pemberton created his drink, it represented an ongoing trend. When cocaine eventually fell from grace as a beverage ingredient, kola-extract colas became popular.
The first year it was available, Coca-Cola averaged nine servings a day across all the Atlanta soda fountains where it was sold. As it grew more popular, the company sold rights to bottle the soda, so it could travel easily. Today about 1.9 billion Cokes are purchased daily. It's become so iconic that attempts to change its taste in 1985—sweetening it in a move projected to boost sales—proved disastrous, with widespread anger from consumers. "Coca-Cola Classic" returned to store shelves just three months after the "New Coke" was released.
These days, the Coca-Cola recipe is a closely guarded secret. But it's said to no longer contain kola nut extract, relying instead on artificial imitations to achieve the flavour.
46. What do we learn about chemist John Pemberton?
47. What does the passage say about kola nuts?
48. How come kola-extract colas became popular?
49. What is known about the taste of Coca-Cola?
50. What is the passage mainly about?
Our world now moves so fast that we seldom stop to see just how far we have come in just a few years. The latest iPhone 6s, for example, has a dual-core processor and fits nicely into your pocket. By comparison, you would expect to find a technological specification like this on your standard laptop in an office anywhere in the world.
It's no wonder that new applications for the Internet of Things are moving ahead fast when almost every new device we buy has a plug on the end of it or a wireless connection to the internet. Soon, our current smartphone lifestyle will expand to create our own smart home lifestyle too.
All researches agree that close to 25 billion devices, things and sensors will be connected by 2020 which incidentally is also the moment that Millennials are expected to make up 75 percent of our overall workforce, and the fully connected home will become a reality for large numbers of people worldwide.
However, this is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg as smart buildings and even cities increasingly become the norm as leaders and business owners begin to wake up to the massive savings that technology can deliver through connected sensors and new forms of automation coupled with intelligent energy and facilities management.
Online security cameras, intelligent lighting and a wealth of sensors that control both temperature and air quality are offering an unprecedented level of control, efficiency, and improvements to what were once classed necessary costs when running a business or managing a large building.
We can expect that the ever-growing list of devices, systems and environments remain connected, always online and talking to each other. The big benefit will not only be in the housing of this enormous and rapidly growing amount of data, but will also be in the ability to run real time data analytics to extract actionable and ongoing knowledge.
The biggest and most exciting challenge of this technology is how to creatively leverage this ever-growing amount of data to deliver cost savings, improvements and tangible benefits to both businesses and citizens of these smart cities.
The good news is that most of this technology is already invented. Let's face it, it wasn't too long ago that the idea of working from anywhere and at anytime was some form of a distant Utopian dream, and yet now we can perform almost any office-based task from any location in the world as long as we have access to the internet.
It's time to wake up to the fact that making smart buildings, cities and homes will dramatically improve our quality of life in the years ahead.
51. What does the example of iPhone 6s serve to show?
52. What can we expect to see by the year 2020?
53. What will business owners do when they become aware of the benefits of the Internet of Things?
54. What is the most exciting challenge when we possess more and more data?
55. What does the author think about working from anywhere and at anytime?